The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts. The Mustang was the first single-engine plane based in Britain to penetrate Germany, first to reach Berlin, and first to make a major-scale, all-fighter sweep specifically to hunt down the dwindling Luftwaffe.
The Mustang was designed in April 1940 by a design team headed by James Kindelberger of North American Aviation (NAA) in response to a requirement of the British Purchasing Commission. The Purchasing Commission approached North American Aviation to build Curtiss P-40 fighters under license for the Royal Air Force (RAF). Rather than build an old design from another company, North American Aviation proposed the design and production of a more modern fighter. The prototype NA-73X airframe was rolled out on 9 September 1940, 102 days after the contract was signed, and first flew on October 26.
The most aerodynamically perfect pursuit plane in existenceTruman Senate War Investigating Committee, 1947
The Mustang was designed to use the Allison V-1710 engine, which had limited high-altitude performance in its earlier variants. The aircraft was first flown operationally by the Royal Air Force as a tactical-reconnaissance aircraft and fighter-bomber (Mustang Mk I). Replacing the Allison with a Rolls-Royce Merlin resulted in the P-51B/C (Mustang Mk III) model and transformed the aircraft’s performance at altitudes above 4,600 m without sacrificing range, allowing it to compete with the Luftwaffe’s fighters. The definitive version, the P-51D, was powered by the Packard V-1650-7, a license-built version of the two-speed two-stage-supercharged Merlin 66, and was armed with six 12.7 mm AN/M2 Browning machine guns.
From late 1943, P-51Bs and P-51Cs – supplemented by P-51Ds from mid-1944 – were used by the USAAF’s Eighth Air Force to escort bombers in raids over Germany, while the RAF’s Second Tactical Air Force and the USAAF’s Ninth Air Force used the Merlin-powered Mustangs as fighter-bombers, roles in which the Mustang helped ensure Allied air superiority in 1944. The P-51 was also used by Allied air forces in the North African, Mediterranean, Italian and Pacific theaters. During World War II, Mustang pilots claimed to have destroyed 4.950 enemy aircraft.
At the start of the Korean War, the Mustang, by then redesignated F-51, was the main fighter of the United States until jet fighters, including North American’s F-86, took over this role; the Mustang then became a specialized fighter-bomber. The last United States military use of the P-51 was in 1968, when the U.S. Army employed a vintage P-51D as a chase aircraft for the Lockheed YAH-56 Cheyenne armed helicopter project.
Despite the advent of jet fighters, the Mustang remained in service with some air forces until the early 1980s. After the Korean War, Mustangs became popular civilian warbirds and air racing aircraft.